Xylometazoline hydrochloride formulations
Xylometazoline constricts dilated blood vessels in the nasal mucosa1,2
Xylometazoline is a sympathomimetic agent that binds to alpha adrenergic receptors causing vasoconstriction leading to decongestion of the nasal mucosa.1,2 This effect begins to take effect within 2 minutes of application and may remain active for up to 12 hours.1
A clinical study with xylometazoline demonstrated superiority to placebo at relieving nasal congestion3
Nasal sprays containing xylometazoline are proven to be significantly superior to placebo at relieving nasal congestion with decongestion effects shown for up to 12 hours.1,3 Xylometazoline was also found to significantly improve individual common cold symptoms, such as easier breathing, leading to significantly greater patient satisfaction with treatment.3 The activity of xylometazoline occurs as quickly as within 2 minutes.1
Xylometazoline provides rapid and long-lasting relief of nasal congestion1
Strong vasoconstriction of dilated blood vessels in the nasal mucosa1,2
Vasoconstriction subsequently results in decongestion of the nasal mucosa and neighbouring tissues of the pharynx, improving nasal airflow.1,2
Benefits of topical decongestants
Topical decongestants in the form of nasal sprays, provide several advantages over oral decongestants:
- They act locally on the nasal mucosa as opposed to requiring absorption and transportation through the bloodstream
- Relief is immediate within a matter of minutes2
- They provide a longer duration of action2
- They have minimal systemic absorption and subsequently fewer systemic side effects4
Xylometazoline hydrochloride begins to take effect within 2 minutes of application and may remain active for up to 12 hours.1 This is in contrast to oral decongestants, which may take up to half an hour to come into effect and last for only up to 6 hours.2
Common side effects, with an incidence of approximately 10%, include dryness or irritation of the nasal mucosa, nausea, headache, or a local burning sensation.1 Occurring at a much lower incidence of approximately 0.0001%, are allergic reactions, including difficulty breathing or swallowing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue or throat, blurred vision, and irregular heartbeat.1
Xylometazoline is known to interact with certain antidepressant medications, including monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tri- or tetra-cyclic antidepressants; the cardiovascular effects of these substances may result in increased blood pressure.1
Caution and appropriate medical advice should be applied before using xylometazoline in pregnancy or breastfeeding.1 Furthermore, caution should be exercised in those suffering from hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, phaeochromocytoma, and prostatic hypertrophy.1
Rebound congestion occurs with the overuse or repetitive use of topical nasal decongestants for greater than 10 days.5 Xylometazoline is not recommended for use in durations greater than 7 consecutive days or 10 days (in the case of 0.05% and 0.1% concentrations).
To avoid rebound congestion, patients should be instructed not to exceed the recommended dose and duration; if symptoms are not adequately controlled after the recommended maximum duration,1,5 then patients should be advised to seek medical advice from an appropriately qualified clinician.1 Patients may also be counselled to supplement xylometazoline use with a nasal saline product to further aid clearance of nasal mucous.5
0.05% concentrations may be applied to children between 6 and 12 years old, under adult supervision. Concentrations of 0.1% should only be used in children over the age of 12 into adulthood.1
For all nasal formulations of xylometazoline hydrochloride 0.1%, a daily dosage of 3 applications to each nostril should not be exceeded;1 this includes the nasal drops, nasal metered-dose spray.
For 0.05% nasal drops 1 to 2 drops in each nostril once or twice daily. Do not exceed 2 applications daily into each nostril
Discover the Otrivin range with xylometazoline hydrochloride
Otrivin 0.1% nasal spray unblocks the nose within minutes and lasts for up to 12 hours. It is also available as a preservative-free Xylometazoline formulation.
Otrivin 0.1% nasal drops unblocks the nose within minutes and lasts for up to 12 hours. It is also available as a preservative-free Xylometazoline formulation.
Otrivin /Menthol 0.1% nasal spray rapidly unblocks the nose with xylometazoline, and relieves sinus pressure with the fresh relief of menthol.